Trends in Dietary Supplement Use Among US Adults From 1999-2012

Shirin Zadeh, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

Prior research by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicated an increase in dietary supplement use between the 1980 – 2000.1 Other results have yielded mixed outcomes regarding the health benefits of individual supplements or multivitamins despite frequent use by US adults. 2

Trends in Dietary Supplement Use Among US Adults from 1999-20123
Design Cross-sectional study; N= 5,556
Objective To report trends in dietary supplement use among US adults
Study Groups N/A
Methods Participants (non-institutionalized persons living in the United States) were surveyed over seven continuous two-year cycles using data from NHANES. From this information, variables were created for use of any supplement product (n= 2,715) in the prior 30 days and use of 4 or more supplement products. In addition, data on the use of any vitamin, any mineral, and use of multivitamin/multimineral (MVMM) (defined as a product containing ≥10 vitamins/minerals) was collected.
Duration 1999- 2012
Primary Outcome Measure To evaluate trends in overall supplement use the preceding 30 days
Baseline Characteristics Total Participants Any supplement use
Age group, years
20-39 1957 718
40-64 2352 1171
≥65 1247 826
Sex
Men 2737 1167
Women 2819 1548
Education
<High school 1330 510
High school 1168 511
Some college  1657 826
≥4 years of college 1397 866
Self-reported health status
Excellent 470 251
Very good 1278 707
Good 1885 884
Results 30-day prevalence of use, %
1999-2000

 

2001-2002

 

2003-2004

 

2005-2006

 

2007-2008

 

2009-2010

 

2011-2012

 

p-value

 

Any supplement

product

52 51 54 49 50 52 52 0.19
Excluding MVMM 34 34 36 36 34 34 39 0.06
≥4 supplement 8.7 9.8 10 9.9 9.0 7.8 9.9 0.06
MVMM 37 38 38 40 33 32 31 <0.001
Any vitamin 47 47 49 49 44 45 48 0.30
Excluding MVMM 25 27 28 26 26 26 31 0.047
Any mineral

or element

42 43 45 4 40 39 39 <0.001
Excluding MVMM 18 20 22 20 19 1 18 0.5
Adverse Events Common Adverse Events: N/A
Serious Adverse Events: N/A
Percentage that Discontinued due to Adverse Events: N/A
Study Author Conclusions Among adults in the United States, overall use of dietary supplements remained stable, use of MVMM decreased, and trends in use of individual supplements varied and were heterogeneous by population subgroups from 1999-2012.

 

Supplement users reported motivations related to overall health as the main factor for supplement consumption. Use of supplements was related to more favorable health and lifestyle choices.3 The increase in supplement use among adults aligns with a growing body of research evaluating the potential beneficial effects of specific vitamins on a number of health outcomes, including fractures, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and multiple sclerosis.4

 

References

  1. Nicastro HL, Bailey RL, Dodd KW. Using 2 Assessment Methods May Better Describe Dietary Supplement Intakes in the United States. J Nutr. 2015;145(7):1630-4.
  2. Rautiainen S, Rist PM, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Gaziano JM, Sesso HD. Multivitamin Use and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men. J Nutr. 2016;146(6):1235-40.
  3. Kantor ED, Rehm CD, Du M, White E, Giovannucci EL. Trends in Dietary Supplement Use Among US Adults From 1999-2012. JAMA. 2016;316(14):1464-1474.
  4. Bailey RL, Gahche JJ, Miller PE, Thomas PR, Dwyer JT. Why US adults use dietary supplements. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(5):355-61.

 

 

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