Is There a Link Between The Degree of Maternal Obesity and Congenital Malformations?

Derek Ebot-Akoachere, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

 

According to the United States Surgeon General, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institutes of Health, obesity is a health issue of nationwide epidemic proportions, [1] Almost one-third of women of childbearing age are considered obese [2], and obesity is associated with many pregnancy complications including congenital malformations (CMF). [3] The relationship between obesity in pregnancy and CMF has been investigated, but there is little data associating increasing severity of obesity and CMF.

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Telemonitoring in Heart Failure Patients Treated by Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy with Defibrillator (CRT-D): the TELECART Study

Raiza Gandola, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

An analysis that evaluated 3,857,420 Medicare beneficiary patients over 65 years old who were hospitalized with heart failure found that little progress has been made in improving short-term mortality, with minimal improvements in long-term mortality in this patient population. [1]

Telemonitoring, as suggested in a review that analyzed its use in the management of chronic heart failure patients, is an effective tool in reducing the risk of all cause mortality and heart failure related hospitalizations. [2]

Telemonitoring involves remotely monitoring patients who are not at the same location as the health care provider, giving them the information necessary to manage patient’s conditions. As noted from patient feedback about the use of telemonitoring, its use has had a positive impact on their health giving them peace of mind that their condition is being closely followed. [3]

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Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

Hannah Webb, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

It is stated that on average, neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger than those neonates born to normal-weight women. Maternal overweight and obesity are considered to be risk factors for gestational diabetes. It is known that even in the absence of diabetes and when following the same controlled diet, obese women have an average reading of 7.2 mg/dL higher glucose levels than normal-weight women. [1]

Title: Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight
Design Meta analysis of 18 community based studies; N= 30,487
Objective To test for genetic evidence of casual association of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight
Study Groups N/A
Methods Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data were used from 30,487 women participating in 18 population or community-based studies
Duration N/A
Primary Outcome Measure Offspring birth weight from 18 studies
Baseline Characteristics Babies were born from the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, Denmark, Canada, the Netherlands, Australia, Norway, and Finland.
Results Study Source Offspring birth weight (grams)
Fraser et al, 2013 3,481
Schlemm et al, 2010 3,472
Power and Elliott, 2006 3,325
Power and Elliott, 2006 3,379
Zhao H et al, 2009 3,440
Bisgaard, 2004 3,560
Nohr et al, 2009 3,643
Olsen et al, 2001 3,595
Knight et al 3,512
Lacroix et al, 2013 3,448
Jaddoe et al, 2012 3,528
Metzger et al, 2008 3,557
Mangus et al, 2006 3,526
Rantakallio, 1969 3.525
Boomsma et al, 2006 3,469
Medland et al, 2009 3,344
Nalatteru et al, 2013 3,365
Moayyeri et al, 2013 3,365
Adverse Events Common Adverse Events: N/A
Serious Adverse Events: N/A
Percentage that Discontinued due to Adverse Events: N/A
Study Author Conclusions Genetically elevated maternal BMI and blood glucose levels were potentially causally associated with higher offspring birth weight, whereas genetically elevated maternal SBP was potentially causally related to lower birth weight. If replicated, these findings may have implications for counseling and managing pregnancies to avoid adverse weight-related birth outcomes.

The causal relationship between birth weight and maternal obesity-related obesity remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was able to determine that genetically elevated maternal BMI and blood glucose levels were potentially causally associated with higher offspring birth weight. This leads to an increase in the risk of birth complications and opens the door to have implications for counseling and managing pregnancies to avoid adverse weight-related birth outcomes. Continue reading

Outcome of apparently unexplained cardiac arrest results from investigation and follow-up of the prospective cardiac arrest survivors with preserved ejection fraction registry

Outcome of apparently unexplained cardiac arrest results from investigation and follow-up of the prospective cardiac arrest survivors with preserved ejection fraction registry

Sylvia Okoma, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

It has been stated that there are a number of identifiable causes of heart disease, which include the primary causes of coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy, but there are also unidentifiable causes when the pathogenesis for cardiac arrest is not apparent.  [1, 2]

It has also been noted that identified genetic conditions that cause sudden cardiac death include these inherited rhythm disorders: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), Brugada Syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and long QT syndrome (LQTS).  [1]  Continue reading