Surgical Site Infection Prophylaxis in Obese Women Undergoing Cesarean Delivery

Kayla Peltier, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported that in 2015 cesarean deliveries accounted for 32.0% of all reported births. [1] One of the complications of cesarean deliveries is post-cesarean surgical site infection (SSI), and the reported incidence has ranged from 3.7% to 9.8% worldwide. [2] There several risk factors for developing post-cesarean SSI, and obesity is one of the reported factors. [2] This may raise a concern in the United States as the CDC also has reported 38.3% of women who are 20 years of age and older are obese. [3]

While obesity has been identified as an independent risk factor for the development of post-cesarean delivery SSI, limited data is available to attempt to determine the optimal antimicrobial regimen for prophylaxis in obese patients. [4] One gram of cefazolin has been identified as sufficient antimicrobial prophylaxis for post-cesarean SSIs in the general population; however, there are concerns of its efficacy in obese women. [2] Therefore, this study aimed to determine the efficacy of oral cephalexin and oral metronidazole as antimicrobial prophylaxis for post-cesarean SSI in obese women. [4]

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Rebranding: The Solution to Veggie Consumption?

Derek Ebot-Akoachere, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

 

An estimated 396 million adults in the world were found to be obese in 2005. This may increase to 1.12 billion in 2030 if current trends remain unabated. [1] The Food and Drug Administration is fighting to curb this health issue by food labeling and education campaigns. [2] People tend to rate foods they perceive as healthy to be less tasty [3] because they are labeled with less appealing descriptors, [4] which may render health-focused labeling counter-effective. This begs the question: what if healthy foods were labeled with more appealing descriptors?

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Is There a Link Between The Degree of Maternal Obesity and Congenital Malformations?

Derek Ebot-Akoachere, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

 

According to the United States Surgeon General, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institutes of Health, obesity is a health issue of nationwide epidemic proportions, [1] Almost one-third of women of childbearing age are considered obese [2], and obesity is associated with many pregnancy complications including congenital malformations (CMF). [3] The relationship between obesity in pregnancy and CMF has been investigated, but there is little data associating increasing severity of obesity and CMF.

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Weight Loss, is it Worth the Cost?

Meron Mezgebe, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

The estimated global incidence of diabetes is predicted to increase to 439 million adults by 2030 partially due to increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Diabetes may lead to premature death and complications such as blindness, amputations, renal disease, and cardiovascular diseases. [1] In the U.S., Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) costs the economy over $245 billion yearly. [2] Gastric band (GB) surgery for obese people with T2D was previously found to be cost-effective and clinically effective compared with non-surgical interventions. [3]

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The Use of Wearables for Weight Loss in Obese Patients

Chidozie Ukpabi, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

According to the American Heart Association, nearly 78 million adults and 13 million children in the United States struggle with obesity. It is suggested that keeping a food diary to control food intake in combination with exercise are successful strategies to effectively lose weight. [1] This has implicated the use of wearables in assisting with weight loss goals, due to their ability to track exercise and meal intake. According to an article describing the rise of consumer health wearables, one in six (15%) consumers in the United States currently use wearable technology. Wearables provide personalized health data, which have been described to assist with behavior changes needed to lose weight. [2]

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Association of Neighborhood Walkability in Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes

Hilary T. Box, PharmD- Mercer University College of Pharmacy

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimated that 69% of US adults were overweight or obese in 2011-2012 resulting in an increase in diabetes prevalence from 15% in the late 1970’s.1-2 Diabetes prevalence has increased from less than 4% in 1990 to 8.3% in 2012.3-4 It is thought that neighborhoods have shifted towards sprawling, car-oriented communities that discourage walking with heavy reliance on motorized transportation. However, it has been shown that neighborhoods with high population density, well-connected streets, and high number of destinations within walking distance of residential areas have higher rates of walking and bicycling for transportation.5-6

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Antibiotic Exposure During the First 6 Months of Life and Weight Gain During Childhood

Prerana Patel, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

 

In an annual report published by The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Moxatag® (amoxicillin) was the most frequently dispensed prescription antibiotic to infants (ages 0-23 months) and children (age 2-11) in 2010. [1]

Guidelines from American Academy of Pediatrics do not mention weight gain in infants who were exposed to antibiotics during the first six months of life. [2]

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