Rebranding: The Solution to Veggie Consumption?

Derek Ebot-Akoachere, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

 

An estimated 396 million adults in the world were found to be obese in 2005. This may increase to 1.12 billion in 2030 if current trends remain unabated. [1] The Food and Drug Administration is fighting to curb this health issue by food labeling and education campaigns. [2] People tend to rate foods they perceive as healthy to be less tasty [3] because they are labeled with less appealing descriptors, [4] which may render health-focused labeling counter-effective. This begs the question: what if healthy foods were labeled with more appealing descriptors?

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Is There a Link Between The Degree of Maternal Obesity and Congenital Malformations?

Derek Ebot-Akoachere, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

 

According to the United States Surgeon General, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institutes of Health, obesity is a health issue of nationwide epidemic proportions, [1] Almost one-third of women of childbearing age are considered obese [2], and obesity is associated with many pregnancy complications including congenital malformations (CMF). [3] The relationship between obesity in pregnancy and CMF has been investigated, but there is little data associating increasing severity of obesity and CMF.

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Weight Loss, is it Worth the Cost?

Meron Mezgebe, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

The estimated global incidence of diabetes is predicted to increase to 439 million adults by 2030 partially due to increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Diabetes may lead to premature death and complications such as blindness, amputations, renal disease, and cardiovascular diseases. [1] In the U.S., Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) costs the economy over $245 billion yearly. [2] Gastric band (GB) surgery for obese people with T2D was previously found to be cost-effective and clinically effective compared with non-surgical interventions. [3]

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The Use of Wearables for Weight Loss in Obese Patients

Chidozie Ukpabi, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

According to the American Heart Association, nearly 78 million adults and 13 million children in the United States struggle with obesity. It is suggested that keeping a food diary to control food intake in combination with exercise are successful strategies to effectively lose weight. [1] This has implicated the use of wearables in assisting with weight loss goals, due to their ability to track exercise and meal intake. According to an article describing the rise of consumer health wearables, one in six (15%) consumers in the United States currently use wearable technology. Wearables provide personalized health data, which have been described to assist with behavior changes needed to lose weight. [2]

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Association of Neighborhood Walkability in Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes

Hilary T. Box, PharmD- Mercer University College of Pharmacy

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimated that 69% of US adults were overweight or obese in 2011-2012 resulting in an increase in diabetes prevalence from 15% in the late 1970’s.1-2 Diabetes prevalence has increased from less than 4% in 1990 to 8.3% in 2012.3-4 It is thought that neighborhoods have shifted towards sprawling, car-oriented communities that discourage walking with heavy reliance on motorized transportation. However, it has been shown that neighborhoods with high population density, well-connected streets, and high number of destinations within walking distance of residential areas have higher rates of walking and bicycling for transportation.5-6

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Antibiotic Exposure During the First 6 Months of Life and Weight Gain During Childhood

Prerana Patel, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

 

In an annual report published by The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Moxatag® (amoxicillin) was the most frequently dispensed prescription antibiotic to infants (ages 0-23 months) and children (age 2-11) in 2010. [1]

Guidelines from American Academy of Pediatrics do not mention weight gain in infants who were exposed to antibiotics during the first six months of life. [2]

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Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

Hannah Webb, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

It is stated that on average, neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger than those neonates born to normal-weight women. Maternal overweight and obesity are considered to be risk factors for gestational diabetes. It is known that even in the absence of diabetes and when following the same controlled diet, obese women have an average reading of 7.2 mg/dL higher glucose levels than normal-weight women. [1]

Title: Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight
Design Meta analysis of 18 community based studies; N= 30,487
Objective To test for genetic evidence of casual association of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight
Study Groups N/A
Methods Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data were used from 30,487 women participating in 18 population or community-based studies
Duration N/A
Primary Outcome Measure Offspring birth weight from 18 studies
Baseline Characteristics Babies were born from the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, Denmark, Canada, the Netherlands, Australia, Norway, and Finland.
Results Study Source Offspring birth weight (grams)
Fraser et al, 2013 3,481
Schlemm et al, 2010 3,472
Power and Elliott, 2006 3,325
Power and Elliott, 2006 3,379
Zhao H et al, 2009 3,440
Bisgaard, 2004 3,560
Nohr et al, 2009 3,643
Olsen et al, 2001 3,595
Knight et al 3,512
Lacroix et al, 2013 3,448
Jaddoe et al, 2012 3,528
Metzger et al, 2008 3,557
Mangus et al, 2006 3,526
Rantakallio, 1969 3.525
Boomsma et al, 2006 3,469
Medland et al, 2009 3,344
Nalatteru et al, 2013 3,365
Moayyeri et al, 2013 3,365
Adverse Events Common Adverse Events: N/A
Serious Adverse Events: N/A
Percentage that Discontinued due to Adverse Events: N/A
Study Author Conclusions Genetically elevated maternal BMI and blood glucose levels were potentially causally associated with higher offspring birth weight, whereas genetically elevated maternal SBP was potentially causally related to lower birth weight. If replicated, these findings may have implications for counseling and managing pregnancies to avoid adverse weight-related birth outcomes.

The causal relationship between birth weight and maternal obesity-related obesity remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was able to determine that genetically elevated maternal BMI and blood glucose levels were potentially causally associated with higher offspring birth weight. This leads to an increase in the risk of birth complications and opens the door to have implications for counseling and managing pregnancies to avoid adverse weight-related birth outcomes. Continue reading