Kayla Peltier, Mercer University College of Pharmacy
It is reported that almost two thirds of patients visiting emergency departments do so for treatment of pain.  The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that each day more than 90 Americans die from an opioid overdose (including prescription pain relievers, heroin, and synthetic opioids). Furthermore, it is reported that 21%-29% of patients who are prescribed opioids for chronic pain misuse them, and 8%-12% of chronic pain patients develop an opioid use disorder. 
Therefore, this study aimed to compare the efficacy of various oral analgesics in addition to acetaminophen in an effort to determine if a combination of non-opioid analgesics could be a potential treatment option in the setting of acute extremity pain in the emergency department (ED).