Canagliflozin vs Placebo in Type 2 Diabetes for CV and Renal Events

Achal Patel, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the more common form of diabetes mellitus compared to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and accounts for ~90% of all diabetes patients. [1] Complications of diabetes include cardiovascular, macrovascular, microvascular, peripheral nerve, and renal diseases. Evidence shows that use of SGLT2 inhibitors may help in reducing the risk of cardiovascular complications, albuminuria, and renal diseases. [2]

Canagliflozin (Invokana®), is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that lowers the renal threshold for glucose and increases urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of renally-filtered glucose across the tubular lumen of the proximal renal tubules. [3] Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are the most recent type of diabetic agents approved for T2D management in the U.S. Previously, the Food and Drug Administration published a guidance for industry that new diabetic agents should be assessed for their cardiovascular safety. [2] The article below summarizes two canagliflozin trials that assessed its effect on CV risks (CANVAS) and albuminuria (CANVAS-R).

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Degludec Versus Glargine in Type 2 Diabetes for CV Risk

Tibin K. Titus, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

Type 2 diabetes affects millions of people worldwide. [1] Among the complications that arise from diabetes are cardiovascular (CV) complications such as stroke, coronary heart disease, and vascular disease. [1] Additionally, studies have shown that type 2 diabetics who require insulin have increased rates of cardiovascular events. [2,3]

Degludec is a new and ultra long acting basal insulin that came into the market in 2016. It is approved for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires all new diabetes drugs to have a CV risk study. [6] To fill the gap in knowledge for the CV safety of degludec, the following study was conducted. [7]

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Cardiovascular Safety of Celecoxib

Tyler Marie Kiles, PharmD, Mercer University College of Pharmacy

The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor rofecoxib was withdrawn from the market in 2004 due to evidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in a placebo-controlled trial.1 In 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concluded that an increased risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events appears to be a class effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).  Further research was mandated by the FDA in response to observed cardiovascular effects of another marketed COX-2 inhibitor,  Celebrex™ (celecoxib).2

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